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How high will the price of Rare Earth materials climb? Is there sufficient magnet supply to fuel the demand from electric vehicles? Attend the Keynote panel at MAGNETICS 2018 as industry leaders will discuss the future of the magnetics industry. Moderated by Scott Tubbs, Vice President of Sales & Marketing, Quadrant Magnetics James Bell, Principal Consultant, MagnetoDynamics Stan Trout, President, Spontaneous Materials Walter Benecki, President, Walter T. Benecki LLC Scott Struven, Sr. Mgr. Sales and Engineering, Hitachi Metals America, Ltd.
Standard practice for specifying permanent magnets involves naming the magnet family and relevant magnetic properties such as Remanence, Intrinsic Coercivity and Energy Product. Sometimes the weight or density of a part is identified but not as a controlled parameter. Every permanent magnet supplier and distributor lists the relevant magnet parameters on their website with the non-magnetic parameters off to the side, or banished to another page. Normally these specifications are considered uncontrolled or reference values. Occasionally a designer references these parameters on a drawing, implying they should be controlled. This can lead to back & forth discussions about what can and cannot be provided. The MMPA, ASTM and IEC standards all leave decisions on these issues to the customer and supplier. This presentation will discuss the non-magnetic properties such as Tensile or Yield Strength, Hardness and others. The origin of some of the values will be discussed, the limitations on the measurements and why they shouldn’t be used as controlling parameters on drawings or specifications.
A common theme in the magnet industry is to attempt to forecast production and consumption of magnets within one or two applications, ignoring others. In one widely discussed market, for example, one can look at the transition from conventional ICE to hybrid or full electric drive vehicles and the associated magnet requirements. Other markets of note include transportation electrification, stationary and mobile refrigeration systems, medical diagnostics, drones and robotics. There is also a transition taking place from HDDs to SSDs that is likely to free up measurable amounts of neodymium. We’ll look at these and other applications/industries, the growth trends within each and the combined demand-supply picture.
The rare earth ferrites exhibit a high electrical resistivity as well as an excessive value of magnetic permeability and low power losses that describes a growing interest for electronic applications at higher frequencies. Extensive studies specified the projections of such materials for constructing magnetic field sensors, microwave, recording and reading devices. In this report, the development of nanostructured particles of rare earth ferrites by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) is described. The method uses exothermic reaction to produce a thermal front that moves through the sample converting components to the desired rare earth ferrite nanoparticles. The yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, samarium and iron nitrates were used as metal precursors and glycine as a fuel. The glycine is completely combusted during the thermal decomposition of the nitrates and generates a temperature front that propagates through the sample. Thermodynamic analysis of the systems predicted a maximum adiabatic temperature in the range of 2200-2800 K with generation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. The substantial gas generation during the reaction helps to produce the synthesized powders friable and loosely agglomerated. Increasing the glycine content increased the reaction temperature during the SCS and consequently the particle size.
The positional accuracy of magnetic sensor systems with injection molded magnets depends on different parameters. Those are the appropriate choice of the magnet for a given type of sensor, the magnets geometry together with its inherent distribution of polarization, an adequate design of magnetizing facilities as well as the management of the injection molding process. In this presentation the different sorts of injection molded magnets for the most common magnetic position sensors will be explained as well as the basic physical principles of their interaction. By different examples there will be shown how to improve external field components of the magnets, so that lower positional errors result at the sensor output. Those improvements can be reached often by relatively simple shape enhancements. In other cases a meticulous design of the magnetizing facilities is needed to provide sensor signals with low deviations from an ideal behavior. Beside experimental results, related design methods on FEM basis will be explained for the magnetization process of the magnet as well as for the analysis of the magnet-sensor interaction itself. Finally the impact of process parameters of injection molding will be presented, by general experimental studies as well as with data from series products.
Rare earth permanent magnets, such as neodymium iron boron and samarium cobalt, are commonly used in permanent magnet motors and generators. The magnetic circuit design, magnet grade selections, magnetic specifications, magnetic testing, magnet brittleness and handling, assembly techniques, in situ magnetization of rotors, containment band, rotor testing, and some possible failure mode of magnet rotors will be the focus of this talk. We will also discuss some of the misconceptions about magnet assemblies for rotary machines.
The very first criteria for the permanent magnetic material design is crystal structure which allows magnetic moments to align along the anisotropic crystal axis. Hexagonal and tetragonal structures do fall within this category. The involved crystal sites play a key role in determining the magnetic moments and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Here we present how advanced density functional calculations incorporating electron correlation and spin orbit coupling are capable to predict and optimize magnetic anisotropy contributed by the rare-earth sites due to the crystal-field split and spin-orbit coupled 4f-states followed by the small but non-negligible magnetic anisotropy contributed by 3d-states. We focus on the site substituted SmCo5 and it’s derivatives to show how theory helps to design and tailor intrinsic properties of permanent magnetic materials.
We are excited to announce a new addition to the 2018 conference – 1x1 Meetings using our proprietary software. Download the conference app, and use this dedicated time to meet and engage with other attendees, speakers and exhibitors.
This presentation is focused on the additive manufacturing techniques to print magnets with complex size and shape. Big Area Additively Manufactured (BAAM) NdFeB bonded magnets with performance comparable to, or better than, magnets of the same composition made using traditional injection molding. The density of the printed magnet is 5.2 g/cm3. The room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci= 8.9 kOe (708.2 kA/m), remanence Br = 5.8 kG (0.58 Tesla), and energy product (BH)max= 7.3 MGOe (58.1 kJ/m3). Additive manufacturing can now be applied for a wide range of magnetic materials and assemblies. We will review all the additive printing techniques that are suitable for fabricating bonded magnets. This work was supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office.
This presentation discusses the cost effective fabrication of soft and hard magnetic materials using cold spray additive manufacturing. This technique allows for 3D build-up of complex shapes permitting fabrication of high complexity motor designs for enhanced performance. Combination of sprayed soft and hard magnetic materials opens up synergetic design possibilities for additional performance gain and cost savings. Measured hard magnetic properties (coercivity and remanence), soft magnetic properties (permeability and losses) and mechanical properties (adhesion and cohesion) will be presented. Use of the materials for the realization of motor prototypes will be discussed.
The Senis Magnetic Field Mappers, or Field Scanners, were initially developed for high position resolution mapping of the three field components Bx, By, Bz in a 3D volume around a permanent magnet assembly. The Mapper hardware, signal processing and display software can also be applied for ac field measurement. Maps of the AC magnetic field in and around a power supply can show the fringe magnetic field from the transformer and inductor magnetic components as a function of position. Changes in the field amplitude and harmonic content can be used to estimate inductive coupling into nearby sensitive circuits and evaluate different component ratings or shielding strategies. Three-component Field Probes with field ranges to +/-3T and as thin as 0.25 mm can be used in the stator-rotor gap of an operating motor to make field maps at selected axial and polar positions as a function of speed and torque loading to compare with the motor design model. The harmonic content can help determine and reduce vibration and acoustic noise sources.
It is established that measuring the BH curve of permanent magnets with open-loop and closed-loop measurement system yields the same results for the key parameters of a hysteresis trace: Br; HcB, HcJ and BHmax. Beyond these four key parameters, there exists small differences between the two measurement systems. This presentation will focus on these differences from the theoretical point as well as highlight some practical cases. From the theoretical point, it is recognized that small differences can be observed near the knee point. Our efforts show that this can be accounted for using simple numerical techniques. But the proof is in the pudding, and in our continuous efforts to demonstrate that both systems yield the same results together with our customers and partners, we have gathered numerous data of which we will present some cases.
The testing of demagnetization curves of permanent magnets at elevated temperatures in hysteresigraphs is fairly routine, but testing below room temperature is not. A new system of thermoelectrically cooled electromagnet pole tips for testing magnets down to approximately -40°C is described along with examples of measurements that have been made with the equipment. For magnetically soft materials, there is a new single sheet tester for measuring the magnetic properties and anisotropy of sheet steel. It is exceptionally user-friendly and complies with specific ASTM and IEC test methods.
We will present a prototype of a modular, easily reconfigurable system for mapping magnetic fields. The basic module is a LEGO-compatible “brick,” based on a recently introduced 3-axis digital “magnetometer on a chip.” Multiple bricks are assembled with LEGO, providing a flexible, inexpensive and accurate mechanical framework. A USB “super-hub” provides communication as well as synchronization of the acquisition. A user-friendly program allows the user to enter the coordinates of the bricks, launch the acquisition and display the resulting field map.
Radial ring magnets, sintered or bonded, have excellent performance in servo motor and BLDC motor, especially in the application of precision control. This presentation will introduce a patent technology and process to produce the high grade radial ring magnets, which sintered ring reaches to 45MGOe, bonded ring reaches to 25MGOe compare the performance between radial ring magnets and common magnets in the motor.
The commercialization of science in general poses unique challenges compared to ventures not reliant on technical break-thoughs and innovations. Specifically in magnet science commercialization there exists a critical gap between innovations that further knowledge and those that present compelling cases for business ventures. There is historical precedence for both successes and failures in the arena of commercialized magnet science, evidenced by the existence of large magnet science corporations like Bruker & Oxford Instruments as well as the multitude of failed ventures who’s magnet science invention simply could not support a business. The MagLab is plowing new ground in efforts to establish new best practices, support infrastructure and enhance startup culture & ecosystem building for entrepreneurs and innovators working in the startup & business arenas of magnet science. Building upon the MagLab’s history of breaking maximum magnetic field records and pushing the limits of magnet science creates a new and unique opportunity for innovators and entrepreneurs to brainstorm, test, implement and launch ventures that would not be possible without the support of the MagLab.
Strong permanent magnets are an important component of many energy technologies, such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Despite this, finding permanent magnets to surpass or supplement the Nd2Fe14B magnet discovered in 1984 remains a challenge. This presentation will discuss several recent discoveries by the US DOE-funded Critical Materials Institute including: the rare-earth-free potential Alnico-beating “gap magnets” Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2; the potential high-performance magnet LaCeCo16Ti; and a less costly high performance magnet alloys based on the Nd2Fe14B material. The presentation will close with a description of future research directions and an outlook for the future of permanent magnets.
It has become accepted practice in the permanent magnet industry that $/kg and (BH)max are the primary metrics determining the optimum material choice for an application. However, there are many situations were both metrics are misleading and may lead to a less than optimal material selection. These shortcomings will be illustrated using case studies and alternative metrics will be discussed An update on the permanent magnet market and application drivers together with the history and latest status of the Hitachi Metals patent litigation will also be presented.
Caloric (solid) materials are referred to as those whose temperatures alter in responses to applied external fields. Representative examples include magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) materials. Refrigeration using these materials may yield significant advantages over conventional gas compression techniques. Current research is focused on the development of materials with desirable caloric properties for energy-efficient refrigeration. In this talk, I will first review recent progress in the development of caloric materials for advanced cooling technologies. I will then discuss specifically about the fundamental aspects and prospective applications of magnetocaloric materials, which have been extensively investigated over the past decade for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration. The advantages and shortcomings of existing magnetocaloric materials will be assessed. Impacts of magnetic phase transitions, reduced dimensionality, and material processing on the magnetocaloric functionality of the material will be discussed. Some novel approaches for improving the materials’ cooling efficiency will be presented. Finally, a new class of multicaloric materials will be proposed.
Ferrites have long been in usage but with the advent of rare earth magnets some of the applications that use ferrite were converted to Neo magnets. Neo magnets gives the same performance to ferrite but with a weight reduction of 90+ percent. The recent desire to lessen the dependence on China, which control the raw materials for rare earth magnets alternate approaches are being taken. Unlike rare earth magnets, ferrite magnets coercivity increases with increase in temperature, hence can be used in motor applications that operate at 150°C. Neo magnets depend on expensive dysprosium to operate at 150°C. Maximum induction of Ferrites that was limited to 4 kiloGauss has been improved to 4.6 kiloGauss. Energy product of 5.5 MGOe is achieved in improved ferrite magnets. With the advent of hybrid and electric vehicles permanent magnet traction motors are getting lot of attention. According to some researchers NdFeB magnets costs about $2.78/kW compared to Ferrite, which costs $1.93/kW for the same peak 80 kW power output. DOE researchers find that Neomagnets are a big cost component in all electric vehicles, and difficult to meet the target specific cost by 2020. Hence, there is a growing need to find alternates to expensive Neo magnets. This presentation details the development of higher energy ferrites, reviews the current state of rare earth magnets and offers a solution to the rare earth crisis.
Commercial applications for battery powered autonomous vehicles used in air, land and sea environments will grow exponentially in the next few years. The drone application is the most popular of these applications in the present time. Currently most of the present applications use a special low weight design of the radial flux permanent magnet outer rotation motor. These applications need the low weight to allow a higher payload and a very low resistance to allow longer flight times. The Axial Flux motor can also be made in this type of design of a motor with a short height and a large OD and ID to minimize weight and resistance. This case study will compare the low weight Axial Flux design with both the inner rotation and outer rotation radial flux motor. The motor case study will be for a 3.5-inch diameter and 1.25 inch length motor. The input and output conditions will be the same and the weight and resistance of the three magnetic circuits will be compared. This case study will also compare the cost and reliability of the three motor types.
One of the major potential challenges for simulating motor designs is the impact of stator lamination materials on motor performance. There are a number of variables in selecting magnetic materials for use in a brushless PM motor design. A first quadrant magnetizing curve and a core loss curve are needed from the steel foundry. The second curve involves core loss versus iron member weight at different excitation frequencies. Both curves must be loaded individually into the SPEED based material files. Stator and Rotor lamination thicknesses, unit flux density, and specific magnetic material also impacts motor saturation and core losses just beyond the knee of the 1st quadrant B/H curve. A new Motor-CAD BPM-EMag module simulation program will be used to illustrate the performance impact of these various materials on overall motor performance.
Recent development efforts have resulted in a new sensor technology for accurately measuring magnetic fields. These sensors rely on the Hall effect in a 2DEG structure, resulting in advantages such as an enormous operating temperature range, a massive reduction in planar Hall effect and excellent sensitivity. These sensors open up new measurement opportunities that may previously have been out of reach, such as high-stress cryogenic environments or high temperature industrial applications.
More and more applications enlist magnets and the according magnet sensors for position, fixation or tracking purposes. For optimal system functionality, both parts have to meet very specific standards. While the magnet sensors may be calibrated all in the same manner, the characterization of the respective magnets is more complex. Depending on the application, we will find mostly dipole permanent magnets, but the geometries ranging from small tablets to vast cuboids or big, thin rings of various materials. In order to characterize these magnets, there is a range of measurement systems from very small sizes to medium-sized magnets based on the far-field theorem for dipole magnetic fields. The larger the geometry on permanent magnets becomes the harder these measurements can be enabled, as the magnetic response becomes increasingly smaller. The recent technology development allows the characterization of magnets up to 50 Am² based on a completely new sensor set-up using multiple orders of the magnetic field for the determination of the magnetic moment of big magnets. Equipped with Hall sensors surrounding the measurement area, it guarantees the same accuracy as the m-axis systems for smaller magnets with a system the same overall size.